India has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, with 2.1 million people living with HIV. India’s epidemic is concentrated among key affected populations, including sex workers and men who have sex with men. The National AIDS Control Programme has made particular efforts to reach these two high-risk groups with HIV interventions. Compared to neighboring countries, India has made good progress in reducing new HIV infections by half since 2001. Despite the free antiretroviral treatment being available, uptake remains low as many people face difficulty in accessing clinics.